Reforestation: Zone 5 food forest - 3,040 soil building trees & counting...Read Now
This part of the project is basically our beginning and it has been a very rewarding experience.
The goals of our reforestation efforts are:
1. To establish & create our food forest, improve & maintain the quality of the land. Initiate our overall farm permaculture design.
2. Create conditions for increased biodiversity in both flora & fauna. By providing habitat for birds and other wildlife, as well as re-establishing depleted native species.
3. Increase biomass. Do our part in mitigating global warming. All reforestation is an important part of the global carbon cycle because trees and plants absorb carbon dioxide.
In accomplishing our reforestation goals, we are stacking functions. This is an important principal, as nothing in nature has only one function. This is how nature is amazingly efficient. We are ultimately working with nature in designing our farm to mimic a natural ecological food and habitat producing forest.
Myself, a friend from the states, my brother, mom and my mom's amazing garden helper along with a few men from the local indigenous community planted all these trees (see pictures below). I am very appreciative of everyone's work in actually doing something significant and special as planting trees.
Ecuador's deforestation rate, particularly in the Andes has been devastating. Many trees in both the highlands & the Amazon have gone extinct or are endangered.
Information on Ecuador's current deforestation & reforestation initiative can be found on our Reforestation page.
Hence, the initiative of the Government of Ecuador to give land owners trees (free). They initially come to your land and assess it for size, species & requirements before they deliver the young trees. For a poor country, I find this governmental initiative admirable.
Working with the government of Ecuador's department of agriculture has also been a big help as well as uplifting since 3,000 of our trees came from them. The initial request of the trees was a fairly straightforward process. We wrote to the department of agriculture's local office in the nearest big city which is Riobamba, an hour and a half away. Our request was written in December 2011 and the trees were delivered to our farm in late February. Initially, 2,700 trees delivered, 40 of the endangered Spanish Cedar's we purchased by us, and planted in July 2011. The remaining 280 were delivered in March 2012, after placing a new request in late February.
The timing was perfect as I planned a last minute trip to Ecuador for mid-March and thankfully, it was still rainy season, perfect for planting!
Our request was for trees to serve as a wind barrier & hedge. To my surprise, all 4 species delivered are soil builders. These trees will serve as nutrition pumps for the soil they use and for the food forest we are creating; they all fit beautifully into our permaculture design plan. We planted; Acacia (Robinia Pseudoacacia), Aliso (Alnus acuminata), Lupina (tarwi, L. mutabilis), and Alamo (Populus deltoides) all nitrogen fixers. We were happy to receive whatever trees gifted to us and would have worked any type of tree into the design somehow, whether they were soil building or not. In Permaculture, we look at functional relationships 1st, so as an example, this was perfect for our overall design. Functional relationships are also indicators of sustainability, which is always our big picture - whole thinking goal...
We planted our new trees around the full perimeter of the 9 hectares of the farm. They will serve as timber eventually, nitrogen fixing/ nutrient accumulators, habitat for increased bio-diverse flora & fauna, wind barrier and shade. Planting them around the perimeter also serves as our zone 5 food forest. Zones in permaculture are a system where the location of an element in a design is determined by:
1. How often we use the element
2. How often we are required to service the element
This is a basic logical + practical principle, whereby the things you use most often & require the most attention, are placed closest to the house in the design (i.e. zone 0-2). Consequently, the things that are used the least often, or that require little or no attention, are placed furthest away in the design, and things that fall somewhere in between are placed accordingly (zone 3-5).
For example, you would place your kitchen & herb garden right outside your door so that you can maintain it (easy access) and also you'd be using it often, so its proximity is practical and efficient use of your time & energy.
Zones are abstract conceptual boundaries around the home which help us to work with distance to plan efficient energy use. Zones do not have any hard/structural boundaries and they can blend into one another. They are always in flux, and are also not necessarily round per the diagram illustrated below.
Next stage for our food forest is zone 1; as typically you work from the inner zone out and can have multiple zone 1's as we will since we will have different living structures. We ultimately will be planting a variety of fruit and nut trees as well as more nutrient accumulator shrubs, plants and nitrogen fixing bushes producing legumes etc. When done with the planting in zones, we will have a 7 layer deep food forest planted in succession (see diagram below, next to zone diagram). Succession planting is following one crop with another, is the most important tool for maximizing a yield. A smart succession plan means fresh food from spring until winter, the harvest keeps coming...
So as the overall food forest is established & evolves, the food chain will extend. It will also continue to attract and increase the diversity of flora and fauna in the area.
Increasing Bio-mass & the many other magical roles of trees:
Our trees are building soil for us, right now, they serve as "pioneers" and ultimately help decrease the workload of mulching. What are nitrogen fixers & soil nutrient accumulators? Nitrogen fixing plants & trees harbor bacteria or fungi in their roots that extract nitrogen from the air and convert it to plant available form in the soil. This is a huge benefit. Nature builds soil from the top down. When pruned or when their leaves fall, they provide a rich stock for mulch or compost. All these trees are obvious players in our ecological food forest because they keep nutrients cycling within the soil and reduce the requirement for purchasing fertilizer. All their debris quickly composts into rich organic humus, which we & Mother Earth welcome.
Trees are veritable chemical, alchemical magic. From just the example above on how they convert their leaves and roosts into soil & food for the many living micro-organisms, worms and creatures underground. Trees are vital to our living eco-system called Earth.
Trees are excellent water purifiers. Thru their leaves, they transpire, pulling water up from their roots. All water exists (exhaled) pure thru the pores in their leaves, originally polluted or not. A full grown tree can transpire 2,000 gallons of water on a hot, dry day. The moisture returns as rain, up to 1/2 of the rainfall over forested land comes from trees themselves. Cut the trees down & the rainfall disappears. They also help keep any nearby water flowing, for example, you take away trees near a creek, and the creek will disappear.
Trees remove CO2 from the air & produce O2. This is how trees help reduce the levels of green house gases on the planet.
Air is also purified & humidified when passing thru a tree. Half of clouds are created by trees! Trees act as cloud seeders as well, to bring rain. They help keep us at livable levels of temperature & weather, helping maintain our ecosystem in homeostasis. Trees help create cooling winds above them; they create convection currents and breezes.
Trees block the wind, making them excellent windbreaks.
Trees provide timber, for homes, heating, furniture, paper goods, energy source & medicine.
Trees leaf litter & roots help hold soil in place (as well as build nutrients & prepares its own fertilizer, as mentioned above). They are erosion-control systems.
Trees have also been shown to be sentient. A tree's roots thread with nearby trees and fuse with them. Research has shown, that their roots can graft with those nearby, exchanging nutrients and even notifying each other of insect attack. Chemical signals released by an infested tree prompt its neighbors to secrete protective compounds that will repel the potential bug invaders. Trees in a forest are more like branches from 1 single subterranean tree than a group of individuals, as they are interconnected and communicate with each other.
In summary, trees are deeply connected to their surroundings, both living & non-living. Trees are dynamic, reacting to their environment and to each other. They transform wind & sunlight into a variety of microclimates, daily & seasonally. Trees harvest nutrients, build soil, pump & purify air and water, create and concentrate rain, shelter and feed wildlife and microbes. For people, they can serve as a barrier; they provide food, medicine, shelter, shade, energy source, flowers & beauty.
Thank you for reading,
“Trees are the best monuments that a man can erect to his own memory. They speak his praises without flattery, and they are blessings to children yet unborn.” ~ Lord Orrery, 1749
My parents are 100% Ecuadorian. My father was born and raised in Alausi, Ecuador and my mother is from Southern Ecuador, Catamayo.
You might be familiar with Catamayo if you are familiar with Vilcababma (in the Valley of Longevity) there is a large and growing ex-pat community there.
Speaking of longevity, both sets of grandparents lived into their 100's. They told me the formula is low stress, clean food, moving your body and of course, love...
My parents bought the farm before they had any of us, about 45 years ago. They had in mind retiring there, or moving back to Ecuador sooner. Something always got in the way.
They did finally move back, in 2006 to retire.
Unfortunately, my dad became ill from 2008 forward, until he passed on in late October 2010. He was hard working, and I think one thing that kept him going was getting back to his country and his land. He always imagined us all returning and enjoying living there. He was always very proud of where he came from. He was an honorable man, with integrity and a love for simple things. He laughed, a lot and loud, always joking. He had many dear and old friends in Alausi. He contributed to his community in any way he could. He was, and is still very much loved there.
While sick in the hospital, he asked me to please keep the land
and do something with it. I said yes, of course...and here I am!
I basically took a PDC (permaculture design course), since I had heard so much about Permaculture being the answer to the many environmental and social issues of the modern world. I took the course and fell in love. I have always been a nature lover and once I discovered that our current farming practices of monocultures and GMO's (genetically modified organisms) are by far the most damaging to our environment than anything else we are doing, I knew this was the best use of the land. A teaching farm and demonstration site filled me with lots of ideas and excitement. My passion for permaculture was born.
This planet is paradise, custom made for human beings and all it's creatures, it's just that human's have forgotten. There is a disconnect, from the fact that we are mammals, we are nature! The further people get away from this knowing, the more harm we do to ourselves and the earth. As any animal would not destroy it's own environment.
My connection to nature is also my early memorable experiences in Ecuador. Both sets of grandparents, were connected to the land. My mother's parents were farmers, as well as my father's mother, was the care taker of my parents farm in their absence. My entire childhood was spent either on the farms or immersed in nature. I am very comfortable there, I suppose it's in my DNA, and if you think of it, it is in everyone's from our ancestry...
Human's may be "at the top of the food chain," so to speak, yet to me, having more intelligence and the ability to reason and talk makes me a steward. Responsible for all the creatures and the earth. Not a callus taker, consuming until there is little or nothing left for future generations? People argue, that the earth can replenish herself, yes she does, always coming back to balance, however that may mean people are out, since our species is not in equilibrium. I sometimes ask myself, this maybe the current evolutionary trajectory, and humans are meant to go? I also believe that the intelligence that created us makes no mistakes. Humans can have an enormous impact for good, we can actually help nature, work with her instead of against.
Everything I have ever fallen in love with in regards to earth stewardship, permaculture and what I feel I can do to make a difference is what I am committed to co-creating here...
"Permaculture, reforestation, sustainable education, health, shamanistic studies (ancestral wisdom), agritourism, voluntourism..."
The prophecy of the eagle & the condor is very fitting, as I am planning to host various experts from both North and South America, in a wide range of sustainable farming practices, with a focus on permaculture.
I am grateful to my parents for helping me re-discover my passion in sustainability and to be able to use this farm as an example for others looking to do the same.
Thank you for reading.